Front Matter| Volume 31, ISSUE 1, Pv-vii, March 2023


        Preface: The Challenge to Achieve Emotion ix

        Teresa González Otero

        Facial Nerve Reconstruction after Oncologic Resections: Grafts and Double Innervation i

        Jorge Noguera Tomás and Teresa González Otero
        Video content accompanies this article at
        Introduction: nature of the problem 1
        Preoperative planning 1
        Surgical technique 2
        Rehabilitation and recovery 6
        Summary 8
        Disclosure 8
        Supplementary data 8

        Side-to-End Intratemporal Hypoglossal-to-Facial Transfer 9

        Luis Lassaletta, José Manuel Morales-Puebla, David Molnar, Teresa González-Otero, and Javier Gavilán
        Introduction: nature of the problem 9
        Surgical technique 9
        Preoperative Planning 9
        Surgical Procedure 12
        Potential Complications 15
        Pearls and Pitfalls 16
        Immediate Postoperative Care 17
        Rehabilitation and Recovery 17
        Disclosure 17

        V to VII Nerve Transfer for Smile Reanimation 19

        Federico Biglioli and Fabiana Allevi
        Manuscript 19
        Video content accompanies this article at
        Indications 19
        Contraindications 22
        Surgical technique 22
        Clinics care points 24
        Supplementary data 24

        The Role of the Cross Face Nerve Graft in Facial Reanimation and Endoscopic Harvest of the Sural Nerve 25

        Jennifer L. Harb and Liliana J. Ein
        Video content accompanies this article at
        Introduction 25
        Choice of nerve graft for cross-face nerve grafting 26
        Conventional versus endoscopic sural nerve harvest 26
        Surgical technique 26
        Closure and immediate postoperative care 29
        Rehabilitation and recovery 29
        Potential complications 29
        Pearls and pitfalls 30
        Summary 31
        Conflict of interest/disclosure statement 31
        Supplementary data 31

        Microvascular Gracilis Free Flap: Single and Double Innervation 33

        Rahul Varman and Matthew Q. Miller
        Video content accompanies this article at
        Introduction 33
        Patient assessment 33
        Operative candidate 34
        Counseling 34
        Alternative Procedures 34
        Risks 35
        Expectations 35
        Operative procedure 35
        Stage 1: Cross-Face Nerve Graft 35
        Stage 2: Free Gracilis Muscle Transfer 36
        Intraoperative pearls 39
        Revision procedures 39
        Clinics care points 40
        Future directions 40
        Summary 40
        Supplementary data 40

        Lengthening Temporalis Myoplasty: A Surgical Guide to Labbé’s Technique 43

        Mohammed Saleem Al Khabori, Haïzam Oubari, Pierre Guerreschi, and Daniel Labbé
        Video content accompanies this article at
        Introduction: nature of the problem 43
        Surgical technique 43
        Preoperative planning 43
        Surgical procedure 44
        Osteotomy and exposure 44
        Myoplasty 45
        Pearls and pitfalls 51
        Undercorrection or overcorrection 51
        Temporal notch 51
        Retraction of the labial commissure 51
        Perioperative blood loss 51
        Horizontal direction of the labial commissure traction vector 51
        Immediate postoperative care 51
        Rehabilitation 51
        Summary 54
        Supplementary data 54

        The Facial Graft: A Graft of Emotions? (About the Reanimation of the Facial Allotransplantation) 57

        Bernard Devauchelle, Stephanie Dakpe, and Sylvie Testelin
        Introduction 57
        Indications 57
        Nature of the problem 58
        Surgical technique (step-by-step procedure) 58
        Planning for Face Transplant 58
        Surgical Procedure 58
        Complications 60
        Postoperative Cares 62
        Physiotherapy 62
        Function and Sensibility Rehabilitation 62
        Secondary Surgeries 62
        Overview of the nervous regeneration of the facial transplant 63
        Summary 63

        Modified Selective Neurectomy for Post Facial Paralysis Synkinesis Smile Dysfunction 65

        Anna Frants and Babak Azizzadeh
        Introduction 65
        Surgical procedure 66
        Preparation and Patient Positioning 66
        Surgical Procedure 66
        Potential Complications 67
        Pearls and pitfalls 67
        Immediate Postoperative Care 68
        Summary 68
        Disclosure 69

        Botulinum Toxin in Facial Reanimation: Map of the Facial Musculature and Dosage 71

        Tracy VandeWater and Laura Hetzler
        Video content accompanies this article at
        Introduction 71
        Preoperative Planning 71
        Preparation and Patient Positioning 71
        Surgical Approach 71
        Potential complications 80
        Pearls and pitfalls 81
        Immediate postoperative care 82
        Rehabilitation and Recovery 82
        Summary 83
        Supplementary data 83