Review Article| Volume 31, ISSUE 1, P57-64, March 2023

The Facial Graft

A Graft of Emotions? (About the Reanimation of the Facial Allotransplantation)


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      1. Avis 82 du comité consultatif national d’éthique, 19 février 2004.

      2. About face : a blueprint for substainable face transplant policy & practice, April 2022.

      3. Barret J. From partial to full-face transplantation : total ablation and restoration, a change in the reconstructive paradigm.

      4. Chatelet N. Le baiser d’Isabelle. 2007 ; éd : Seuil Paris.

        • Petruzzo P.
        Long-term follow-up in composite tissue allotransplantation : in-depth study of five (hand and face) recipients.
        Am J Transplant. 2011; 4: 808-816
        • Dusseldorp J.R.
        • Guarin D.L.
        • van Veen M.M.
        • et al.
        Automated spontaneity assessment after smile reanimation: a machine learning approach.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 2022; 149: 1393-1402
        • Eckman E.
        Emotion in the human face.
        Cambridge University Press, London1982
        • Ben Mansour K.
        • Sarhan F.R.
        • Neiva C.
        • et al.
        Analysis of mimic facial movements based on motion capture.
        Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin. 2014; 17: 78-79
        • Giraux P.
        • Sirigu A.
        • Schneider F.
        • et al.
        Cortical reorganization in motor cortex after graft of both hands.
        Nat.Neurosci. 2001; 4: 691-692
        • Mathes D.W.
        • Edards J.A.
        • Anzai Y.
        • et al.
        A functional periorbital subunit allograft: vascular, anatomic, and technical considerations for future subunit facial transplantation.
        J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2014; 67: 1371-1377
        • Sosin M.
        Eyelid transplantation : lessons from a total face transplant and the importance of blink.
        PRS J. 2015; 135: 167e-175e
        • Grigos M.I.
        • Leblanc E.
        • Rifkin W.J.
        • et al.
        Total eyelid transplantation in a face transplant : analysis of postoperative periorbital function.
        J Surg Res. 2019; 2: 420-425
        • Belanger K.
        • Schlatter G.
        • Hebraud A.
        • et al.
        A multi-layered nerve guidance conduit design adapted to facilitate surgical implantation.
        Health Sci Rep. 2018; 1: ie86
        • Guerout N.
        • Duclos C.
        • Drouot L.
        • et al.
        Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery of peripheral nerve lesion in rats.
        Muscle Nerve. 2011; 43: 543-551.
        • Xiaoping R.
        • Canavero S.
        Human head transplantation. Where do we stand and a call to arms.
        Surg Neurol Int. 2016; 7: 11