Upper Airway (Hypoglossal Nerve) Stimulation for Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

  • Rishi Jay Gupta
    Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Section, Department of Dental Service, San Francisco VA Health Care System, 4150 Clement Street (160), San Francisco, CA 94121, USA

    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 707 Parnassus Ave, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA

    Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, Davis, 2521 Stockton Blvd, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
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  • Deepak Kademani
    Head and Neck Oncologic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, North Memorial Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN 55422, USA
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  • Stanley Yung-Chuan Liu
    Corresponding author.
    Division of Sleep Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, Stanford Sleep Surgery Fellowship, Stanford University School of Medicine, 801 Welch Road, Stanford, CA 94305, USA
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      Obstructive sleep apnea is a multilevel process consisting of physiologic and anatomic obstructive patterns leading to partial or complete collapse of the upper airway and resulting comorbidities.


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