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Contents

        Preface: Oral Manifestations of Systemic Diseases xiii

        Joel J. Napeñas

        Introduction to Oral Manifestations of Systemic Diseases: Evaluation of the Patient 85

        Mary Hil Edens, Yasser Khaled, and Joel J. Napeñas
        History of present condition and medical history 85
        Source and reliability 85
        Chief complaint 85
        History of present illness 85
        Past medical, family, and social history 86
        Occupational and environmental history 86
        Review of systems 86
        Examination 86
        Vital signs 86
        General evaluation 86
        Cranial nerve examination 86
        American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of physical status 86
        Head and neck examination 87
        Imaging studies 88
        Intraoral radiographs 88
        Three-dimensional imaging 88
        Diagnostic tests and studies 90
        Urinalysis 91
        Blood testing 91
        Smear and culture 91
        Biopsy 92

        Oral Manifestations of Gastrointestinal Disorders 93

        Lina Maria Mejia
        Introduction 93
        Gastroesophageal reflux disease 93
        Medical management 94
        Oral manifestations and considerations 94
        Inflammatory bowel disease 95
        Ulcerative colitis 95
        Crohn’s disease 97
        Liver disease 99
        General overview 100
        Manifestations of liver disease 100
        Oral manifestations and considerations 101
        Summary 102

        Oral Manifestations of Immunodeficiencies and Transplantation Medicine 105

        Elizabeth Waring and Alessandro Villa
        Introduction 105
        Early effects 105
        Mucositis 105
        Infection 106
        Late effects 108
        Malignancy 108
        Graft versus host disease (lichenoid, xerostomia) 108
        Postinflammatory hypermelanosis 109
        Neutropenic ulcer 109
        Drug-related effects 109
        Drug-induced gingival hyperplasia 109
        Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor–associated stomatitis 110
        Other effects 110

        Oral Manifestations of Autoimmune and Connective Tissue Disorders 113

        Vidya Sankar and Marcel Noujeim
        Introduction 113
        Autoimmune and autoinflammatory-related blistering and ulcerative diseases 113
        Pemphigus vulgaris 113
        Mucous membrane pemphigoid 116
        Oral lichen planus 117
        Behçet disease 117
        Connective tissue diseases 119
        Systemic lupus erythematosus 119
        Sjögren syndrome 120
        Rheumatoid arthritis 123
        Sarcoidosis 123

        Drug-Induced Oral Complications 127

        Kentaro Ikeda
        Drug-induced oral complications 127
        Drug-induced angioedema 127
        Brief description 127
        Incidence, predilection 127
        Clinical features 127
        Differential diagnosis 127
        Treatment considerations 128
        Erythema multiforme 128
        Brief description 128
        Incidence, predilection 128
        Clinical features 128
        Differential diagnosis 129
        Histopathology 129
        Treatment considerations 129
        Drug-induced gingival hyperplasia 129
        Brief description 129
        Incidence, predilection 129
        Clinical features 129
        Differential diagnosis 129
        Histopathology 130
        Treatment considerations 130
        Newer evolving medications, biologics 130
        Brief description 130
        Incidence/clinical features 130
        Differential diagnosis 130
        Treatment considerations 131

        Oral Complications of Nonsurgical Cancer Therapies 133

        Sharon Elad, Yehuda Zadik, and Noam Yarom
        Introduction 133
        Oral mucosal complications 133
        Salivary gland complications 136
        Musculoskeletal complications 138
        Sensory disturbances 141
        Teeth and gingivae 142
        Bleeding 144
        Infections: bacterial, viral, and fungal 144
        Malignancy 145
        Developmental disturbances of teeth and craniofacial growth occur in pediatric patients. 146
        Summary 146

        Oral Manifestations of Hematologic Disease 149

        Christina McCord and Lisa Johnson
        Introduction 149
        White blood cell disorders 149
        Lymphoma 149
        Multiple myeloma 151
        Leukemia 152
        Neutropenia 154
        Red blood cell disorders 154
        Iron deficiency anemia 155
        Pernicious anemia 155
        Sickle cell anemia 156
        Thalassemia 157
        Histiocytic disorders: Langerhans cell histiocytosis 157
        Bleeding disorders 159
        Thrombocytopenia 159
        Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-Rendu disease) 160
        Hemophilia 160

        Oral Manifestations of Viral Infections 163

        Mahnaz Fatahzadeh
        Introduction 163
        Herpes simplex type 163
        Description 163
        Epidemiology 163
        Primary oral herpes 163
        Secondary oral herpes 164
        Varicella-zoster virus 165
        Varicella zoster (chicken pox) 165
        Herpes zoster (shingles) 165
        Description 165
        Clinical presentation 165
        Differential diagnosis 166
        Coxsackievirus infections 166
        Description 166
        Epidemiology 166
        Clinical presentation 166
        Diagnosis 167
        Management 167
        Human papillomavirus 167
        Description 167
        Natural history 168
        Clinical presentation 168

        Oral Manifestations of Immunologically Mediated Diseases 171

        Lisa Johnson, Kristina Perschbacher, Iona Leong, and Grace Bradley
        Introduction 171
        Swellings 171
        Orofacial granulomatosis 171
        Ulcers 173
        Recurrent aphthous stomatitis 173
        Behçet disease 177
        Erythema multiforme 178
        Red and white lesions 181
        Lichen planus 181
        Oral lichenoid lesions 182
        Lichenoid contact reaction to dental materials, particularly amalgam 182
        Contact stomatitis—cinnamon reaction 184

        Oral Complications of Multiorgan Disorders 187

        Leah Bowers and Michael Brennan
        Amyloidosis 187
        Brief description 187
        Clinical features 187
        Incidence, predilection, genetics 187
        Histopathology 188
        Differential diagnoses 188
        Treatment considerations 188
        Sarcoidosis including Heerfordt syndrome 188
        Brief description 188
        Incidence, predilection, genetics 188
        Clinical features 189
        Histopathology 189
        Differential diagnosis 189
        Treatment considerations 190
        Granulomatosis with polyangiitis 190
        Brief description 190
        Incidence, predilection, genetics 190
        Clinical features 190
        Histopathology 190
        Differential diagnosis 191
        Treatment considerations 191
        IgG4-related disease 191
        Brief description 191
        Prevalence, predilection, genetics 191
        Presenting features 191
        Histopathology 191
        Differential diagnoses 191
        Treatment considerations 192
        Systemic sclerosis (systemic scleroderma) including CREST syndrome 192
        Brief description 192
        Incidence, predilection, genetics 192
        Clinical features 192
        Histopathology 193
        Differential diagnosis 193
        Treatment considerations 193

        Head and Neck Manifestations of Endocrine Disorders 197

        Arwa M. Farag
        Introduction 197
        Pituitary gland disorders 197
        Hypopituitarism 197
        Hyperpituitarism 198
        Treatment considerations 198
        Thyroid gland disorders 199
        Hypothyroidism 199
        Hyperthyroidism 199
        Parathyroid gland disorders 201
        Hyperparathyroidism 201
        Hypoparathyroidism 202
        Adrenal glands disorders 202
        Adrenocortical insufficiency or hypoadrenocorticism (Addison disease) 202
        Hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing syndrome) 202
        Endocrine pancreatic disorders 204
        Etiology and epidemiology 204
        Clinical manifestations 204
        Treatment considerations 204
        Pregnancy 204
        Etiology 204
        Oral manifestations during pregnancy 205
        Consideration during dental management of pregnant women 205

        Oral Complications of Systemic Bacterial and Fungal Infections 209

        Amr Bugshan, Arwa M. Farag, and Bhavik Desai
        Introduction 209
        Bacterial infections 209
        Tuberculosis 209
        Bacterial salivary gland infection 210
        Syphilis 211
        Actinomycosis 213
        Cat-scratch disease 215
        Uncommon bacterial infections associated with oral manifestations 215
        Fungal infections 216
        Oral candidiasis 216
        Deep fungal infections 217

        Oral Complications of Dermatologic Disorders 221

        Paolo G. Arduino
        Introduction 221
        Oral lichen planus 221
        Mucous membrane pemphigoid 223
        Pemphigus vulgaris 224
        Epidermolysis bullosa 224
        Psoriasis 226