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Oral Manifestations of Viral Infections

      A plethora of symptomatic or asymptomatic viral conditions may affect the oral cavity.

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      Further readings

        • Cohen J.I.
        Herpes zoster.
        N Engl J Med. 2013; 369: 1766-1767
        • Fatahzadeh M.
        • Schwartz R.A.
        Human herpes simplex virus infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptomatology, diagnosis, and management.
        J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007; 57: 737-763
        • Fatahzadeh M.
        • Schwartz R.A.
        Herpes simplex labialis.
        J Cli Exp Dermatol. 2007; 32: 625-630
      1. Gordon S. Viral infections of the mouth. In: James WD. e medicine. 2016. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1079920-overview. Accessed November 5, 2016.

      2. Janniger C. Herpes zoster. In: Elston D, et.al. e medicine. 2016. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1132465-overview. Accessed November 5, 2016.

      3. Muller ML. Coxsackie viruses. In: Bronze MS, et.al. e medicine. 2016. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/215241-overview. Accessed November 5, 2016.

        • Slots J.
        Oral viral infections of adults.
        Periodontol 2000. 2009; 49: 60-86
      4. Varicella. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention epidemiology and prevention of vaccine-preventable diseases. 13th edition. 2015. p. 353–76. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/pubs/pinkbook/index.html. Accessed November 5, 2016.

      5. Weiss A, Dym H. Oral lesions caused by human papillomavirus. In: Clinical advisor. 2011. Available at: www.clinicaladvisor.com. Accessed November 5, 2016.