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Contents

        Preface: Where Are the Advancements in the Management of Mandibular Condylar Process Fractures? ix

        Martin B. Steed

        Classification of Mandibular Condylar Fractures 1

        David B. Powers

        Anatomy and Biomechanics of Condylar Fractures 11

        Cameron J. Walker and Stephen P.R. MacLeod
        • Introduction 11
        • Overview of anatomy 11
        • Biomechanics of condylar fractures 14
        • Summary 15

        Virtual Surgical Planning and Intraoperative Imaging in Management of Ballistic Facial and Mandibular Condylar Injuries 17

        Philipp Kupfer, Allen Cheng, Ashish Patel, Melissa Amundson, Eric J. Dierks, and R. Bryan Bell
        • Introduction 17
        • Surgical procedure 21
        • Summary 23

        The Role of Intra-articular Surgery in the Management of Mandibular Condylar Head Fractures 25

        Paolo Boffano, Pierre Corre, and Stefano Righi
        • Introduction 25
        • Content 25
        • Imaging and surgical planning 26
        • Indications 27
        • Surgical approaches 27
        • Surgical techniques 28
        • Complications 33
        • Summary 33

        The Biology of Open Versus Closed Treatment of Condylar Fractures 35

        Susan K. Snyder and Larry L. Cunningham Jr
        • Vascular supply 35
        • Structural adaptations 37
        • Summary 45

        Secondary Treatment of Malocclusion/Malunion Secondary to Condylar Fractures 47

        Glenn Maron, Amy Kuhmichel, and Geoffrey Schreiber
        • Splint therapy and physical therapy 47
        • Conservative treatment 48
        • Equilibration 48
        • Orthodontic correction of bilateral condylar process fractures 48
        • Arthroplasty/Total joint replacement 49
        • Orthodontics and orthognathic surgery 52
        • Case report 53
        • Treatment protocol 53
        • Summary 53

        Matching Surgical Approach to Condylar Fracture Type 55

        Hany A. Emam, Courtney A. Jatana, and Gregory M. Ness
        • Introduction 55
        • Identifying fractures by location 55
        • Surgical approaches 55
        • Submandibular/periangular 56
        • Retromandibular 56
        • Preauricular/endaural 58
        • Retroauricular 59
        • Transoral 60
        • Summary 61

        Soft Tissue Trauma in the Temporomandibular Joint Region Associated with Condylar Fractures 63

        Deepak G. Krishnan
        • Introduction 63
        • Internal injuries to the temporomandibular joint 63
        • Penetrating soft tissue temporomandibular joint trauma 64
        • Hemarthrosis of the joint 64
        • Damage to the joint surfaces, disc, and disc displacement 64
        • Damage to the glenoid fossa 64
        • Changes to soft tissue injuries following repair of the fractures 65
        • Healing of soft tissue injuries in closed treatment of mandibular fractures 65
        • Healing of soft tissue injuries in open treatment of mandibular fractures 66
        • Summary 66

        Plating Options for Fixation of Condylar Neck and Base Fractures 69

        Eric L. Bischoff, Ryan Carmichael, and Likith V. Reddy
        • Introduction 69
        • Surgical approach 69
        • Biomechanics of the condylar neck and base 69
        • Plating options 70
        • Summary 73

        Management of Pediatric and Adolescent Condylar Fractures 75

        Martin B. Steed and Caleb M. Schadel
        • Introduction 75
        • Craniofacial growth and development 75
        • Frequency of pediatric condylar fractures 76
        • Diagnosis 77
        • Closed versus open treatment 77
        • Uncommon injuries and complications 80
        • Summary 83