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Botulinum Toxin Use in the Upper Face

      Botulinum toxin is a potent exotoxin that disrupts neuromuscular transmission by inhibiting the release for acetylcholine from the presynaptic membrane resulting in attenuation of muscle contraction.

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      Further readings

        • Carruthers A.
        • Carruthers J.
        • Said S.
        Dose ranging study of botulinum toxin type A in the treatment of glabellar rhytids.
        Dermatol Surg. 2005; 32: 414-422
        • Cartee T.V.
        • Monheit G.D.
        An overview of botulinum toxins: past, present and future.
        Clin Plast Surg. 2011; 38: 409-426
        • Flynn T.C.
        Botulinum toxin: examining duration of effect in facial esthetic applications.
        Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010; 11: 183-199
        • Guyuron B.
        • Tucker T.
        • Kriegler J.
        Botulinum toxin and migraine surgery.
        Plast Reconstr Surg. 2003; 112: 171S-173S
        • Hsu T.S.
        • Dover J.S.
        • Arndt K.A.
        Effect of volume and concentration on the diffusion of botulinum exotoxin A.
        Arch Dermatol. 2004; 140: 1351-1354
        • Matarasso S.L.
        Complications of botulinum exotoxin for hyperfunctional lines.
        Dermatol Surg. 1998; 24: 1249-1254